Published: September 08 2023
Buda Castle, otherwise known as The Royal Palace, is an iconic Hungarian landmark that simply can't be ignored. The story behind this treasured castle is a captivating chronicle of destruction and reconstruction. Spanning from the 13th century to the present day, its tale is steeped in history, marred by battles and has witnessed some of the most significant moments in Hungarian history.
The First Castle
The foundations of Buda Castle go back to the 13th century. After the tragic Mongol Invasion in 1241-42, King Béla IV felt the need to construct structures with defensive purposes. As a result, he decided to build a castle on Castle Hill that was completed by 1265. Named the 'Royal Castle', it was designed to be a grand palace fit for Hungarian monarchs.
The Golden Period
The peak era of the castle, often referred to as the 'golden period', was during the reign of King Matthias Corvinus in the 15th century. Renowned for his love of the Italian Renaissance, Matthias Corvinus brought European Renaissance culture to Hungary, profoundly influenced Hungarian culture and architecture, and significantly renovated and expanded the Buda Castle.
Ottoman Rule and Destruction
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Buda Castle fell under Ottoman rule in 1541, leading into a period of decay for nearly 150 years. During the Great Siege in 1686, reconquered by the Holy League, the castle suffered severe damage, almost beyond repair, laying in ruins for several decades.
The Grand Habsburg Palace
By the late 18th century, the Habsburgs decided to commission a stately palace to serve as a symbol of their power. The construction took place between 1749 to 1769 with subsequent extensions in the 19th century. The grand ‘new’ palace incorporated a distinctly Baroque style. However, it was heavily bombed during World War II and was almost completely destroyed.
In the aftermath of World War II, the extensive damage left to the Castle led to a slow and gradual process of reconstruction which lasted several decades. The focus was less on restoring the castle to its pre-war grandeur and more on returning it closer to its historical roots. Nevertheless, certain sections such as the Baroque-style facade were restored as a mark of its more recent history. Today, Buda Castle remains as the historic castle and palace complex of the Hungarian kings in Budapest and currently houses the Hungarian National Gallery and The Budapest History Museum.
The story behind Buda Castle is indeed a rich tapestry of different eras, architectural styles, and historical events. From its humble beginnings through its golden era, its numerous phases of destruction and reconstruction, to the iconic landmark it is today – the castle remains a symbol of Hungary's varied and magnificent history.